Letter case

Letter effect is the distinction between a letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals or more formally majuscule & smaller lowercase or more formally minuscule in the total representation oflanguages. The writing systems that distinguish between the upper & lowercase pull in two parallel sets of letters, with used to refer to every one of two or more people or matters letter in one set usually having an equivalent in the other set. The two case variants are option representations of the same letter: they do the same score and pronunciation and are treated identically when array in alphabetical order.

Letter case is loosely applied in a mixed-case fashion, with both upper and lowercase letters appearing in a condition piece of text for legibility. The alternative of case is often prescribed by the grammar of a language or by the conventions of a specific discipline. In orthography, the uppercase is primarily reserved for special purposes, such(a) as the number one letter of a sentence or of a proper noun called capitalisation, or capitalised words, which allows the lowercase the more common variant intext.

In some contexts, this is the conventional to usage one case only, for example, engineering array drawings are typically labelled entirely in uppercase letters, which are easier to distinguish individually than the lowercase when space restrictions require that the lettering be very small. In mathematics, on the other hand, letter case may indicate the relationship between mathematical objects, with uppercase letters often representing “superior” objects e.g., X could be a mathematical set containing the generic constituent x.

Typographical considerations

The glyphs of lowercase letters can resemble smaller forms of the uppercase glyphs restricted to the base band e.g. "C/c" and "S/s", cf. small caps or can look hardly related e.g. "D/d" and "G/g". Here is a comparison of the upper and lower case variants of regarded and subjected separately. letter identified in the English alphabet the exact relation will reconstruct according to the typeface and font used:

Typographically, the basic difference between the majuscules and minuscules is non that the majuscules are big and minuscules small, but that the majuscules generally have the same height although, depending on the typeface, there may be some exceptions, especially with Q and sometimes J having a descending element; also, various diacritics can increase to the normal height of a letter.

There is more variation in the height of the minuscules, as some of them have parts higher old-style numerals still used by some traditional or classical fonts, 6 and 8 make up the ascender set, and 3, 4, 5, 7 and 9 the descender set.